Simulation of parcel distribution

Research question. Should your e-commerce order be delivered by vans, cargo bikes, or is it better if you pick it up yourself? We investigated the benefits for companies and city life in a simulation study

Input data. Parcel demand (density) per area

Methodology. Sample parcel demand for many days and simulate deliveries

Direct delivery

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Delivey via micro-hubs

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Pick-up points

Obtain real-world travel times and distances via OpenStreet Map and compute delivery routes for each day. Simulate the classical delivery via van, and compare with a system based on dedicated cargo bikes

Conclusion. Bike deliveries can drastically reduce external costs, while the costs for the delivery company depend on the exact setup (and especially on the capacity of the bikes)